Eat the Rainbow: How Many Portions of Fruit & Vegetables Should We Eat?


How many portions of fruit & vegetables should we eat?

Nature cleverly provides us with the whole spectrum of colours in our foods, to ensure we eat all the different types of nutrients that will nourish and heal our bodies.

Fruits and vegetables fall into 5 different colour categories. Each colour carries its own set of unique phytochemicals, which help combat disease. These phytochemicals are what give fruits and vegetables their vibrant colours.

A typical serving of fruit or vegetables is only half a cup, but in the nutritional therapy world, we recommend consuming between 9-13 portions of whole plant foods each day to help prevent chronic disease!

What are the benefits of eating colourful fruits & vegetables? 

The benefits of red, purple & blue foods

Fruits and vegetables with red, purple and blue hues contain pigments called anthocyanins, which act as powerful antioxidants in the human body. They are known for their ability to support the heart and cardiovascular system, as well as memory. Anthocyanins have also been linked to decreased risk of macular degeneration, certain types of cancer, and stroke, although more research is needed.

Red, purple and blue produce have particularly high levels of certain nutrients, too. Strawberries, beets, and kidney beans are loaded with folic acid. Cranberries, strawberries, raspberries, red or pink grapefruit, blueberries, and red bell peppers all are packed with vitamin C.

Cherries, prunes, and eggplant are good sources of fibre, which helps us stay fuller for longer, and balance blood sugar levels. Cranberries are known for their unique ability to help protect against urinary tract infections, thanks to certain compounds called proanthocyanidins, which prevent bacteria from sticking to the bladder wall.

Types of red, purple & blue foods

Red food sources include apples, kidney beans, bell peppers, cranberries, cherries, goji berries, red onions, radishes, raspberries, redcurrants, strawberries, rhubarb, tomato, watermelon.

Purple and blue foods include blueberries, blackberries, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, aubergine, figs, grapes, kale, olives, plums, potatoes, prunes, raisins and black rice.

The benefits of orange & yellow foods

We’re often told as kids to eat all of our carrots as they’ll help us see in the dark. This belief does have truth to it, since carrots and other orange produce contain high levels of betacarotene, an antioxidant which helps protect our eyes from macular degeneration, and supports night vision.

Other nutrients found in orange and yellow fruits and vegetables include vitamin C, potassium, folic acid and bromelaine. Although oranges are famous sources of vitamin C, other produce contains just as much, if not more vitamin C than oranges. Sources include sweet potatoes, yellow bell peppers, peaches, mangoes and papaya.

Starchy vegetables such as sweet potatoes and squash contain plenty of potassium, which is essential for helping reduce high blood pressure. The bromelaine found in some yellow and orange fruits, including pineapples, is known to help support the immune system to help fight infection and reduce inflammation associated with histamine and allergies.

Types of orange & yellow foods

Apricots, bell peppers, carrots, mango, nectarine, orange, papaya, pumpkin, squash, sweet potato, tangerines and turmeric are all good sources of orange containing plant pigments.

Bananas, bell peppers, corn, ginger, lemon, millet, pineapple, starfruit and summer squash are good sources of yellow antioxidants.

The benefits of green foods

Leafy greens should be a regular part of the diet, since they are packed with nutrients and antioxidants for all round health. The darker the greens, the better, since darker shades indicate denser sources of nutrients including folic acid, magnesium, calcium, vitamin K, and betacarotene.

Leafy greens and cruciferous vegetables such as kale, cabbage, brocolli and brussels sprouts, also contain a powerful molecule called indole-3-carbinol (I3C). When ingested, I3C is coverted to diindolylmethane (DIM), which is said to have benefits in helping to balance the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone.

Types of green foods

Apples, artichokes, asparagus, avocado, brussels sprouts, bell peppers, bok choy, brocolli, cabbage, celery, cucumer, green beans, green peas, kale, limes, olives, pears, spinach and courgettes are ideal sources of green foods.

The benefits of white, tan & brown foods

When we think of white foods, an image of the family party buffet filled with beige sausage rolls, bread and cakes usually springs to mind. However, the natural sources of white, tan and brown foods are highly beneficial, as they boast high levels of B vitamins, folic acid and vitamin C.

White foods are also good sources of resistant starch. This type of starch feed the friendly bacteria in the gut, and in turn increase the production of short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats that our cells need to function, and butyrate is the preferred energy source for the cells in the colon wall. Keeping these cells healthy means protecting the integrity of the gut lining to prevent inflammation and stop unwanted food particles and pathogens from passing through into the blood stream.

Types of white, tan & brown foods

White, tan and brown foods include cauliflower, cocoa, coffee, coconut, garlic, legumes, mushrooms, nuts, white onions, seeds, shallots, tahini, soy, tea and whole grains.

Do you eat the rainbow every day?

I can’t stress enough just how crucial it is that we get as many of these colours into our diets every day. The nutrient compounds contained in these foods offer potent anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, helping to protect every delicate cell in our bodies from the damage we’re exposed to in our modern lives.

Happy rainbow-ing!

Kirsty Gillmore is a registered Nutritional Therapist (BA Hons, DipCNM, mBANT, CNHC) and New Business Representative at G&G Vitamins. Kirsty is also the Founder of LLB Nutrition, a nutritional therapy clinic and wellness blog based in South East London. Visit the website here:

2 thoughts on “Eat the Rainbow: How Many Portions of Fruit & Vegetables Should We Eat?

  1. I have been absent for some time, but now I remember why I used to love this web site. Thank you, I’ll try and check back more frequently. How frequently you update your website?


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