What is Saccharomyces Boulardii?

Gut Bacteria , Gut Flora, Microbiome. Bacteria Inside The Small

Saccharomyces boulardii is a unique, non-pathogenic, transient yeast which has been classed as a probiotic for various conditions. It has a sticky outer surface which can attach to bacteria such as E.coli and salmonella and removes it from the body.

S. Boulardii does not multiply (colonise) in the gut and takes three days to reach a maximum steady state. Rather than by colonisation itself, S. Boulardii helps the bodies ability to colonise other beneficial bacteria and exerts its effects during its transit through the gastrointestinal tract. It inactivates bacterial toxins that bind to cells and cause inflammation. As it passes through the GI tract, it encourages brush-border enzymes and therefore increase absorption of foods. S.Boulardii may also help in the digestion of sucrose by secreting sucrase.

S. Boulardii helps to stimulate the individuals immune responses and enzymes to enhance digestion and absorption. It is useful in cases of diarrhoea in both children and adults including, infection, bacterial overgrowth, traveller’s diarrhoea, and antibiotic, HIV, and rota-virus associated diarrhoea. It can also be used as a preventative measure against harmful effects that can be caused during antibiotic use and has even been found to improve results of antibiotics in cases like Clostridium difficile. Use of this probiotic during antibiotic therapy can help to support gut microflora.

It can work in the bladder to support against urinary tract infections, vaginal infections and candida related infections too. In the case of Crohn’s disease, S. Boulardii can increase sIgA in the intestine and may increase absorption of intestinal chloride, thought to play a role in the treatment of Crohn’s disease. The sIgA is important for immune defences against pathogens, bacteria, toxins and antigens. S. Boulardii antagonises C. Difficile attachment sites helping to prevent infection, and produces proteases that decrease toxicity of C. Difficile toxins.

S. Boulardii, whilst a yeast, is unrelated to candida albicans and its species. Candida makes the gastrointestinal tract vulnerable to invasion by bacteria and yeast whilst S. Boulardii produces acids known to inhibit harmful candida yeasts. It also has inhibitive effects on bacterial biofilm formation, and as a survival mechanism, releases anti-fungals like caprylic acid to reduce pathogenic yeasts in it’s vicinity. These secretions help to prevent hyphae formation on the candida and therefore inhibiting any replication.

How do I take Saccharomyces Boulardii?

S. Boulardii can be taken with cool food or drink and can even be taken out of the capsule if there is difficulty swallowing and mixed with cold food. Doses ranging from 250mg to 3000mg have bee used in divided doses for up to 6 months in cases where individuals have been combating C. difficile disease. It is always advisable to consult a healthcare professional for advise tailored to your requirements.

Can Saccharomyces Boulardii be taken with other antifungals?

Other antifuncals may kill off the S. Boulardii organisms and it may theoretically have inhibitive effects so it is advisable to take them at different times of the day.

Can Saccharomyces Boulardii be taken with other antibiotics?

S. boulardii is naturally resistant to all antibacterial antibiotics and can be taken along with antibacterial antibiotics without adversely affecting its potency and efficacy. Several clinical trials have used S. boulardii in conjunction with standard antibiotics in the treatment of C. difficile disease and have demonstrated that S. boulardii enhances the success of antibiotic therapy in this setting. Additional studies have shown that S. Boulardii can be taken along with antibiotics to support the gastrointestinal microflora thereby reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

Can Saccharomyces Boulardii be taken with other probiotics?

Yes it can! Studies suggest S. Boulardii works synergystically with other probiotic strains such as lactobacillus and bifidobacteria.

Can children and infants use Saccharomyces Boulardii?

S. Boulardii has been used safely in children and infants in clinical trials intended to evaluate the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in infants and children. In this trial 250mg was given twice a day children aged 6 months to 14 years and no adverse effect were observed.

References:

Plein K, Hotz J, (1993) ‘Therapeutic effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on mild residual symptoms in a stable phase of Crohn’s disease with special respect to chronic diarrhoea – a pilot study’ Z Gastrointestinal. PMID: 8465554
Tasteyre A, et al (2002) ‘Inhibition of in vitro cell adherence of clostridium difficile by Saccharomyces boulardii’. Microb Pathog. PMID: 12071678
Castagiluolo I, et al (1999) ‘Saccharomyces boulardii protease inhibits the effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B in human colonic mucosa’. Infect immune. PMID: 9864230
Murzyn A, et al (2010) ‘The effects of saccharomyces boulardii on candida albicans-infected human intestinal cell lines Caco-2 and intestin 407’ FEMS microbio Left. PMID: 20629753
Krasowska A (2009) ‘The antagonistic effect of saccharomyces bouarldii on candida albicans filament, adhesion and biofilm formation’ FEMS Yeast Res. PMID: 19732158
Remenova T, et al (2015) “A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial studying the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on the gastrointestinal tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of miglustat.” Orphanet J Rare Dis;10:81.
Qamar et al (2001) “Saccharomyces boulardii Stimulates Intestinal Immunoglobulin A Immune Response to Clostridium difficile Toxin A in Mice.” Infect. Immun., 69(4):2762–2765.
Coeffier, M et al (2005) “Effect of glutamine on water and sodium absorption in human jejunum at baseline and during PGE1-induced secretion.” J Appl.Physiol ;98(6):2163-2168.
Jian ZM et al, (1999) “The impact of alanyl-glutamine on clinical safety, nitrogen balance, intestinal permeability, and clinical outcome in postoperative patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 120 patients.” JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ;23:S62-6.
Sacks GS (1999) “Glutamine supplementation in catabolic patients.” Ann Pharmacother;33:348-54

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